Latest published

E-Government and Digitalization

Since 2009, Italian local authorities – and, more broadly, Italian public administrations – have faced a progressive increase of transparency obligations with regard to the publication of administrative documents on institutional websites as well as concerning their internal organization and activities. Prompted by an Italian privacy authority’s sanction based on the illicit online treatment of personal information, this paper analyses the correlation between the quantity of these obligations as well as the correct compliance thereof, and employees’ level of ICT training. The percentage and the characteristics of the employees that have acquired an adequate ICT training – with a particular reference to their age – represent a clear provisional indicator of their capability of complying with the obligations of publication and transparency without violating the privacy rights of the documents’ subjects and whose information is being published online.

Read More

D.L. n. 174/2012 details the internal control system in local authorities envisaged by D.Lgs. n. 286/1999, providing for a preventive and a subsequent phase of administrative regularity control. According to art. 147-bis T.U.E.L., subsequent control is an internal arbitral control, implemented during the following phase of the formation of the act, under the direction of the municipal secretary. It must be ensured according to general principles of corporate audit and methods defined within the organization's autonomy. Acts subject to control include: expenditure commitment determinations, entry verification documents, expenditure settlement documents, contracts and other administrative documents. Subsequent check concerns legitimacy and cost-effectiveness of administrative action. Nevertheless, accounting principles do not properly integrate the purpose of the subsequent check for administrative regularity, as they are concentrated only in regularity check of the determinations, contracts and deeds subject to control and not also accounting check. Art. 147-bis.3 affirms that the municipal secretary must send control results to: units evaluating employees’ results, for example useful documents for the evaluation, the Auditors, the City Council and the various heads of services, along with directives to comply with in case of irregularity. Subsequent check processes may take advantage of digital transformation since it is realized through a double paper-digital track. Thus, we could hypothesize the development of an ad hoc IT platform. As an outcome, there could be several benefits such as the dematerialisation and progressive digitization of the procedure. Besides, all the information of the authority would be better integrated, while optimizing the data acquired, avoiding duplications in document requests and allowing for a green transition.

Read More

The article discusses issues concerning the identification of a Public Administration’s certified electronic email (CEM) box, which is valid for the transmission of judicial proceedings. Firstly, we illustrate the legislation - complex, uncoordinated and unclear - regulating the delivery of judicial proceedings via the digital domicile of the P.A. Furthermore, we examine the case law – still fluctuating - which has been formed on the subject; we also indicate the hypothesis in which the notification of judicial proceedings to a CEM address other than the one provided for this purpose by the Administration is considered to be fully valid and effective, and the legal reasons for this interpretation.

Read More

Publications

Copertina libro Le Regioni alla prova della pandemia da COVID-19.

The volumes analyze the measures adopted by the Regions and Autonomous Provinces of Trento and Bolzano to deal with the pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus - also known as COVID-19 (acronym for COronaVIrus Disease 19) - from the beginning of the health crisis to the end of September 2020.

Publication details
Il Diritto dell'Amministrazione Pubblica Digitale

The volume, through the analysis carried out by the authors of the individual chapters, aims to accompany the reader in identifying and interpreting the countless provisions governing digital public administration and to highlight and emphasize how good administration presupposes a level of knowledge by public bodies of great precision and attention to the facts.

Publication details

Transparency and Anti-Corruption

Article 6bis of Law no. 241/1990 governs the conflict of interest in exercising administrative power; however, this legal rule does not provide a definition of “procedural conflict of interest” and it does not define the nature of the procedure requiring the public servant to abstain. The present study analyses the doctrinal and jurisprudential orientations formed with regard to the aforementioned notion and attempts to identify the application area of the institute.

Read More
diffusione virus velocità

During the Covid emergency, the importance of the collection of quality public data, their re-elaboration for information purposes and their timely dissemination emerged . This contribution analyzes the judicial actions promoted by Codacons in order to solicit the release of data, and so, in particular, the presidential decrees nos. 2299/2020 and 2346/2020 of the T.A.R. Lazio and n. 01841/2020 of the Council of State.

Read More

European Union

In the recent judgment of June 2020 in case C-378/19 (Prezident Slovenskej republiky), the Court is once again called upon to rule on the definition of ‘independencÈ regarding regulatory Authorities. In particular, it has to give an answer to the question on whether it can be considered as independent an Authority which is appointed by the Government and to which procedures are allowed to take part representatives of the ministries. Therefore, the Court has to assess whether the Slovak legislation implementing Directive 2009/72/EC, relating to the internal energy market can be considered legitimate, with particular regard to art. 35 of the same Directive, which precisely governs the designation and independence of the regulatory Authority. The Court concludes that, in accordance with the principle of institutional autonomy, which, inter alia, allows Member States to decide on their internal administrative organisation, the national legislation in question cannot be considered per se illegitimate, provided that all the requirements are met indicated by the Directive in order to ensure the independence of the Authority. In other words, governmental appointment and ministerial participation in the price-fixing procedures do not affect ex se the independence of the regulator. In any case, the criteria in accordance to which this appointment is carried out must be as such as not to compromise the objective of the integration of the specific market, precisely that of guaranteeing the independence of the regulator. This decision, despite being in line with the previous case-law (even if the Court does not give a definite answer left to the national judge) which leaves Member States wide margins of choice in relation to the organisation and powers of the independent Authorities, provided that minimum requirements are met aimed at guaranteeing the achievement of the objectives of the legislation considered, it gives us the opportunity to dwell on the issue of institutional autonomy in the specific sector of the independent Authorities and make some final considerations.

Read More

This paper aims to analyze the sentence T-778/16 of the General Court which has annulled the Decision (EU) 2017/1283 which had condemned Apple Inc. to pay about 13 billion in taxes into the Irish tax coffers, not paid following two “tax rulings”, one in 1991 and one in 2007, stipulated between the Irish tax authorities and Apple in order to define the tax base of the two subsidiaries ASI and AOE located in Irish territory. The analysis, in addition to highlighting the reasons that led the Court to annul the decision, will conclude with a brief reflection on the consequences that the judgment could have on the policy, started by the European Union in 2014, of fighting aggressive taxation practices adopted by some Member States.

Read More

Fundamental Rights and Freedoms

In the summer term of 2020, teaching at German universities was shifted to the digital space. In the winter term 2020/21, distance learning will continue at many universities, at least in part, especially for courses with a high number of participants. It is questionable to what extent compulsory digital teaching will interfere with the freedom of teaching and whether digital teaching can be demanded by the faculty management in accordance with fundamental rights in the exceptional situation caused by the pandemic and beyond the crisis.

Read More